India, currently the second most populous country in the world, has 17 percent of world’s population in less than three percent of earth’s land area.
India began the 20th century with the population of about 238 million and by the year 2011, it reached 1.21 billion, it has been estimated that by 2050, 50% more population will be added.
Around 41 percent of India's population is below the age of 20 years and half of the population is in the 20-59 age group while 8 percent is above the age of 60.
Country is in the middle of a demographic transition, both fertility and mortality have started declining throughout the country, though the pace and magnitude of the decline varies considerably across the States.
Like many countries of the world, the onset of mortality decline preceded the onset of fertility decline by few decades. Considering all these factors, India’s National Population Policy 2000 (NPP 2000) set the long-term objective of reaching population stabilization by 2045 at an estimated population of 1.4 billion